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Tag: Sql

Subquery vs. CTE: A SQL Primer

Have you ever wondered about the differences between a subquery and a common table expression (CTE) in SQL? The concepts seem very similar, but knowing the difference – and when to use each one – will help you write efficient and readable queries. First, we’ll explain the concepts underlying subqueries and CTEs. Then we’ll look at a few examples and finally analyze the pros and cons of each technique.

How to Number Rows in an SQL Result Set

Have you ever needed to add a sequential number to the records in the result of an SQL query? It’s not as simple as it looks! Find out how to do it correctly in this article. To number rows in a result set, you have to use an SQL window function called ROW_NUMBER(). This function assigns a sequential integer number to each result row. However, it can also be used to number records in different ways, such as by subsets.

Course of the Month - Creating Basic SQL Reports

In May, we chose Creating Basic SQL Reports as our course of the month. Why? Because the basis of every successful business is making the right decisions based on proven data and good SQL reports. I asked Agnieszka Kozubek-Krycuń, Chief Content Officer at Vertabelo, about this. She knows SQL better than just about anyone and is probably the best person to talk about SQL Reporting. What does it mean to create SQL reports?

Which Major Companies Use PostgreSQL? What Do They Use It for?

Which companies use the open-source relational database management system PostgreSQL? Find out … and learn why you should be a PostgreSQL user too. You know the blue elephant logo. You have heard that PostgreSQL is a very good solution. But which companies use it? Here is a list of the largest IT and business companies that use PostgreSQL (or Postgres, for short). Multinationals worth billions of dollars can't be wrong, right?

Overview of Ranking Functions in SQL

SQL ranking functions make working with relational databases easier, especially for data analysts, marketers, and financial specialists. These functions are used to assign a ranking number for each record and allow you to efficiently create useful reports. SQL ranking functions are window functions. Window functions compute the result based on a set of rows. The word “window” refers to this set of rows. Let’s look at the syntax of ranking functions:

Beginner’s Guide to the SQL Subquery

Subqueries are a powerful SQL resource, allowing us to combine data from multiple tables in a single query. In this article, we’ll teach you everything you need to begin using subqueries. Perhaps the simplest definition of a SQL subquery is “A query inside a query”. Subqueries are so easy to understand that they often appear in the opening chapters of SQL courses. However, there are many variants of subqueries that need to be explained.

Advanced SQL Interview Questions (and Answers)

Do you want to move to a job that uses SQL? Are you unsure about what to expect during the job interview or how to benchmark your knowledge? This article will give you a good idea of where you stand. If you feel stuck in your job, you’re not the only one. The modern division of work pushes people to perform very specific tasks, expecting them not to look at what's on the other side.

SQL in Google Sheets? Yes, We Can!

Did you know that you can write SQL-like queries in Google spreadsheets? This feature is incredibly powerful, versatile, and can replace most of the functionalities offered by Excel’s pivot tables. Read our article to find out how you can easily use the QUERY function to efficiently work with your Google Sheets data. Relational databases share many features with spreadsheets. When we explain what databases are, we often say that they are a bit like spreadsheets except they give us more control over larger amounts of data.

Why Should I Learn SQL Window Functions?

SQL has been around for more than 25 years. Its basic syntax – like SELECT, WHERE, GROUP BY, HAVING, and ORDER BY – is well known. But is there something besides traditional SQL? Can you go beyond the basics and improve your skills? The answer to this question is yes. There is a modern version of SQL. In this article, we are going to dive into the modern version and learn about SQL window functions.

What Is a Nested Query in SQL?

Have you ever wished that you could build a query with several SELECT statements? Good news! You can do this – and a lot more – with SQL’s nested queries. If you’ve been learning SQL (and maybe writing some queries) for a while, you’ve probably encountered cases where it looks like you need another SELECT statement inside your main statement. You may wonder “Is it possible to use nested SELECTs in SQL?

Advanced SQL Courses for Data Analysts – A Complete Review

Even data analysts who already know SQL need to keep their skills sharp. Where can you find the best advanced SQL courses for data analysts? Check out our review of the top online sources! In this article, I present a list of online SQL courses for data analysts. These courses are offered by various platforms. Why wait? Let’s jump right in! 8 Advanced SQL Courses for Data Analysts Let's take a closer look at these courses to decide which platform will be better for you in learning SQL.

You Want to Learn SQL? You've Come to the Right Place!

It is difficult to list all the benefits of learning SQL. You will work faster and more efficiently with a database, you will no longer be dependent on the IT department, and you will be able to analyze the data yourself and draw appropriate conclusions, among others. Add reporting to this, and you will get a very wide range of cool and useful skills. Maybe you want to change jobs or get a promotion?

What SQL Practice Do You Need to Prepare for a Technical Job Interview?

You’ve scored yourself an interview for an SQL-related job. Nice work! But perhaps uncertainty is creeping in as your interview date looms closer. Do you know enough SQL to make the cut? What questions are you likely to be asked? What SQL practice should you be doing before your interview? Almost all SQL job candidates go through exactly the same nerve-wracking process. Here at, we have the lowdown on all the SQL practice and preparation you’ll need to ace those interview questions and take your career to the next level.

Is SQL a Programming Language?

SQL is a powerful tool for communicating with database management systems. When you write SQL queries, you give instructions to the computer, and it performs these instructions—it sounds like programming. However, you cannot build an application with SQL as you can with Python or Java. So, is SQL a programming language? What Is SQL? Let’s start with the basic definition. SQL, or Structured Query Language, is a language used for communication with relational databases.

Course of the Month - Window Functions

Spring has come. It is nicer outside. It's a great time to learn something new. Which course should you choose? In April, it's worth it to bet on SQL window functions. What are they, what are they used for, and why are they worth knowing? I asked Agnieszka Kozubek-Krycuń, Chief Content Officer at Vertabelo, these questions. She has a PhD in mathematics and over 10 years’ experience teaching mathematics and computer science at the University of Warsaw.

What Is a SQL Running Total and How Do You Compute It?

The SQL running total is a very common pattern, used frequently in finance and in trend analysis. In this article, you’ll learn what a running total is and how to write a SQL query to compute it. So, without further ado, let’s get started on the first part of the question. What’s a SQL Running Total? In SQL, a running total is the cumulative sum of the previous numbers in a column.

Is SQL Worth Learning?

We’re in the 21st century. These are the “ultimate data times” in which loads of information on all kinds of things is available. We want to explore this info even more, slice and dice it, understand where it comes from and what triggers it. With such large amounts of data coming in, people have discovered that spreadsheets aren’t enough. There’s a need for a greater solution, something like a spreadsheet on steroids.

Top 3 Platforms to Learn SQL Online: A Complete Comparison

Do you want to learn SQL online? Where do you start? There are many choices on the internet, and it can be hard to decide. But don’t worry—I tested and compared three major platforms to help you find the best place to learn SQL online! E-learning is on the rise. It gives us infinite possibilities of growing our professional careers without leaving our homes. And increasing our competencies is especially important now that the labor market has become dynamic and unstable.

When Do I Use SQL Window Functions?

Have you heard one of your colleagues bragging about using SQL window functions? Do you know basic SQL but not much, or anything, about window functions? If you want to learn about window functions and how to use them in a business context, you’re in the right place! This happens often. You reach a certain level of knowledge, and you feel like the king (or queen) of the world. Then, you overhear your colleagues talking about something you have never heard of (in this case, window functions).

How to Join 3 Tables (or More) in SQL

Using JOIN in SQL doesn’t mean you can only join two tables. You can join 3, 4, or even more! The possibilities are limitless. If you’ve just learnt JOINs in SQL, you might think that it’s limited to two tables. That’s not surprising – this concept can be hard to understand, and the idea that JOINs can get even more complicated may be really scary at first. The truth is that you can easily extend this idea to three tables or even more.

Why Take the “SQL Basics” Course at’s interactive “SQL Basics” course teaches the foundations of SQL. Discover why we built this online course, our philosophy behind it, and what it contains! What Is SQL, and Why Should You Learn It? SQL is a language used to talk to databases, computer programs that hold data and can process it efficiently. SQL can select data from a database and perform various computations on the data, be they simple or complex.

What Is the Difference Between a GROUP BY and a PARTITION BY?

Window functions are a great addition to SQL, and they can make your life much easier if you know how to use them properly. Today, we will address the differences between a GROUP BY and a PARTITION BY. We’ll start with the very basics and slowly get you to a point where you can keep researching on your own. PARTITION BY vs. GROUP BY The PARTITION BY and the GROUP BY clauses are used frequently in SQL when you need to create a complex report.

What is the Best SQL Training Online?

In today’s data-driven world, SQL is a highly sought-after skill, but it cannot be mastered merely over a fortnight. With so many resources at your disposal to learn SQL, where do you even consider beginning, and how do you practice SQL? Savvy and knowledgeable database professionals have consistently been in high demand over the last five years. If you are aiming to advance your career as a database developer, administrator, warehousing specialist, or analyst, SQL training and mastery is an absolute necessity.

How to Analyze Time Series COVID-19 Data with SQL Window Functions

The COVID-19 pandemic really changed the way we live. No matter where you are, you're being impacted by this unpredictable virus. We do not know what the future holds, but we do believe in science and in better days to come. One thing that makes me as a data analyst particularly happy is that we have publicly available data. We can analyze that data and learn something from it. If you want to explore COVID-19 with the help of modern SQL constructions, keep reading — this article is intended for you.

SQL Window Functions vs. GROUP BY: What’s the Difference?

A very common misconception among SQL users is that there is not much difference between SQL window functions and aggregate functions or the GROUP BY clause. However, the differences are very significant. Perhaps the only similar point between GROUP BY and window functions is that both allow you to execute a function (such as AVG, MAX, MIN, or COUNT) on a group of records. I’d say that window functions’ special power is that they allow us to obtain results that otherwise would be almost impossible to achieve.

Choose the Best Way to Learn SQL

SQL has become a hot topic in the professional world, and many resources have appeared both online and offline for learning SQL. It’s easy to get lost in the jungle of books, tutorials, and courses. Which resources do you choose? If you want to know how to learn SQL quickly and effectively, take a look at my list. There are many reasons for learning SQL. We asked our users about them and learned that there was no universal motive.

SQL Cookbook with Recipes for Success

The internet holds a lot of information and can provide solutions to various problems. SQL users, both beginners and advanced, often turn to the internet for help with SQL queries. This article will help you find the right SQL queries to solve your problems. Learn what the SQL Cookbook is and why you should use it. You will also find a list of the most important recipes, from which you will prepare a great SQL dish with the taste of success.

Are There Any Good SQL Courses for Marketers?

Looking for places to learn SQL online and level up your marketing efforts? Check out these SQL courses. Introduction With the help of IT experts, meticulous marketers analyze information to create advertising strategies. This commonplace state of affairs forces the marketer to rely on data experts and sometimes wait for their availability. But what if marketers could pull the data themselves? They can – by turning into a technical marketer.

How to Get the First Day of the Week in SQL Server

This is additional content for the course Customer Behavior Analysis in SQL Server. In the previous article, we talked about how you can use the SQL Server DATEPART() function with week or iso_week to group events by week. The query might look like this: SELECT DATEPART(week, RegistrationDate) AS Week, COUNT(CustomerID) AS Registrations FROM Customers WHERE '20180101' The result looks something like this: WeekRegistrations 1 58 2 123 .

How to Group Data by Week in SQL Server

This is additional content for the course Customer Behavior Analysis in SQL Server. In this course, we showed you how you can analyze the customer lifecycle (customer acquisition, conversion, activity, retention, and churn) with SQL. We discussed customer registration cohorts, or groups of customers who registered during the same period (e.g. same week, same month). Analyzing customer registration cohorts lets you see registration trends and relate registration cohorts with marketing campaigns.

Types of Database Jobs: Choose One of Them and Start Being Awesome

Do you dream of high earnings and interesting work? Are you fed up with your boss and his or her annoying vacation stories in exotic countries? Is it time to change your job? Why not learn SQL? Here are some examples of the types of database jobs that may lead you to a better life. What types of database jobs use SQL? Here are some examples, but first, a small caveat.

Why Window Functions Are Not Allowed in WHERE Clauses

Window functions are extremely powerful, but there are a lot of nuances and little details you need to learn about using window functions in order to use them correctly and efficiently. A fairly common question SQL users have is why window functions are not allowed in WHERE. TL;DR: You can use window functions in SELECT and ORDER BY. You cannot use window functions in WHERE, GROUP BY, or HAVING.

How to Practice SQL After a Video Course

When you're just starting to learn coding, the most obvious first step is to watch online video courses. They're one of the most popular ways to learn the basics of a new technology without investing a lot of time and money. But you need to do more than that to master the topic. What should be your next step? When someone asks me about how to start learning to code, I often recommend trying video tutorials first.

How to Rank Rows in SQL: A Complete Guide

Don’t struggle with SQL ranking functions anymore! This article will guide you through the most common ranking use cases. Rankings are used around us every day. Sports tournaments, the best movies and TV series on Netflix, stores with the cheapest products—these are only a few examples of rankings you might’ve seen recently. Using SQL RANK functions might be hard sometimes. The variety of different constructions is enormous. You can easily get lost in everything there is to learn about ranking.

Online Education in the Times of COVID-19 grants free access to their Interactive courses till 04/20/2020. People around the world are faced with a new challenge. A challenge which requires swift action and adaptability. Students and teachers, employers and employees, families and friends. Many have shown vigilance and decisiveness, while at the same time trying their best to maintain their everyday-life continuity. However, there are those who, due to the current circumstances, need to postpone plans and invest their resources in different areas.

Stay at Home and Learn SQL for Free with

Working remotely is a dream come true for some. You ditch commuting and have more time for the people you love and the things you enjoy. For others, it's a challenge to maintain their focus when there are new distractions. It's also an opportunity to invest the few gained hours in learning something new. Staying at home can be a time when you might find yourself busier than you've ever been, but not getting many things done, and worse, not learning what you planned to.

Video Tutorial or Interactive SQL Course – Which Is Better?

Are you ready to get started with SQL but unsure which learning method is the most effective? In this post, we’ll talk about the pros and cons of learning SQL from an instructional video vs. an interactive online course. Are you a chronic Internet-using student who’s planning to learn SQL? Maybe you did some research but still don’t know which kind of training is worth your (limited) time. We all have families, hobbies, and other after-work commitments, and finding the right resource for learning SQL will save you some time.

How Will Learning SQL Improve My Daily Work?

Whether you want to boost your professional development, learn in-demand skills, or start something new and interesting, learning SQL will make your life easier in many ways. Are you thinking of learning SQL but aren’t sure if it's a good idea? At first glance, learning SQL may seem completely useless, especially if the industry you are in is not related to IT. But that's not true. Although your position in the company may not imply that you code every day, you can still gain a lot from SQL.

How to Start Writing SQL Reports

So, you’ve started, or want to start, learning SQL. You understand that a database is a repository for raw data and that data in business forms the backbone of the decision-making process. But how do you gain meaningful insights from raw data? How can you take a vast amount of information from a database and use SQL to give it a real-world utilization? Learn how to write SQL reports!

The Top 7 Platforms with the Best SQL Courses for 2020

Are you struggling to narrow down which platforms are the best for learning SQL online? We have all been there. I know how confusing it can be when choosing amongst the hundreds of resources available. Find out below which platforms offer the most enriching and seamless SQL learning experiences online. In this article, I will review the platforms with the best online SQL courses offered this year. Whether you are a student looking for your first job, a professional hoping to transition to a data analysis, or an experienced data practitioner, there are plenty of great opportunities to learn SQL online at various levels of technical ability.

Learning SQL? 12 Ways to Practice SQL Online

If you’re currently learning SQL, you may have found yourself knee-deep in reading material and may be wondering how on earth you can bridge the gap between book knowledge and real-life SQL application. In this article, we bring you 12 of the most effective ways to practice SQL online, taking you from a bookworm to a database butterfly in no time at all! All theory and no practice will make you a frustrated SQL user!

What Online SQL Courses Are Best for Finance and Economics Majors?

Are you studying finance and wondering how you can use your knowledge in this technical world? Maybe you’ve just started working as a data analyst and you want to bring new tools and skills to your workplace? This article could help you with the list of the SQL courses worth trying. Maybe you’re studying finance and find your studies too theoretical. How will you put this knowledge into practice?

Top 10 Websites That Will Help You Find the Perfect SQL Job

People learn SQL for many reasons. In my case, I wanted to find a better job that would allow me to earn more and have more free time to pursue my interests. But where do you find such a job? Here is my list of the 10 best websites with database jobs. Although SQL is almost 40 years old, it is appearing in more and more job advertisements. Data has become an essential tool for entrepreneurs, and they are looking for people to squeeze every bit of information from their databases.

Common Entry Level SQL Developer Interview Questions

Have you ever been interviewed for an entry-level SQL position? Are you planning to apply for such a job? This article will help you to know what to expect and prepare for common SQL developer interview questions. After gaining some basic knowledge of SQL and programming, you're probably wondering what to do next. Or maybe you're not wondering! You know that what you've learned will soon disappear if you don't use it regularly.

How to Become an SQL Developer

There is no simple answer to the question “How do you become an SQL developer?” However, if the answer were too complex, there would be no point in writing this article, and yet I’m doing it. So, somewhere along the way, we’ll find the answer. As said in the intro, there is no magic wand that will turn you into an SQL developer. But reading this article will save you some time and help you focus on what is important to achieve your goal.

HAVING vs. WHERE in SQL: What You Should Know

This article is about SQL’s WHERE and HAVING clauses. Both clauses are part of the foundations of the SQL SELECT command. They have similar uses, but there are also important differences that every person who uses SQL should know. Let’s see what’s behind the HAVING vs. WHERE debate. In this article, we’ll suppose we work for a government social agency supporting people or families whose income is below a certain threshold.

How to Practice SQL

Do you already know what SQL aggregation functions are, what JOINs are, and how i“group by” is different than“order by”? Great, congratulations. But don't you think that in order to master SQL and be able to apply it, you need to practice? We advise you on how to practice SQL to prepare for a data analyst job interview or to simply boost your knowledge effectively. Because, as they say, SQL practice makes perfect.


Need to understand SQL INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE? We'll get you up to speed with a comprehensive How-To and useful examples! SQL INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements—what are they all about? If you're a data engineer, a database administrator, or even just your average data fanboy or girl, one day you're going to find yourself with a database that becomes your "baby." Charged with this special bundle of joy, you're going to need to feed and change the little fella.

SQL, Databases, and Hollywood Movies

Policemen, doctors, lawyers, scientists, teachers: These are the professions that we often see in Hollywood movies. But are movies also trying to show what the work of data analysts looks like? Here is a list of six movies in which screenwriters, directors, and producers decided to cast SQL and databases in the main roles. Data analysis is most often associated with business, reporting, and making key decisions for the company.

Difference between GROUP BY and ORDER BY in Simple Words

For someone who is learning SQL, one of the most common places to get stuck is when learning the GROUP BY command. GROUP BY and ORDER BY are two important keywords in SQL that we use to organize data. The difference between GROUP BY and ORDER BY is that ORDER BY is more simple than GROUP BY and is usually introduced early in an SQL course. Sometimes, people are quite confused over these two concepts (SQL ORDER BY vs.

Grouping Data in SQL Server

People who work with data know that data grouping can sometimes be a chore. If you struggle and waste hours with Excel, OpenOffice, or some other tool trying to group various sets of data, take a look at this article and learn how to do the work much quicker and easier by using SQL. You often find yourself in a situation where you need to analyze data and present the results in a form other than the one in which the data is stored.

SQL Order of Operations

SQL is not a traditional programming language in which you write a sequence of instructions in a given order of execution. Instead, SQL is a "declarative" language, which means that by writing a SQL query, you declare what data you expect as a result of the query, but you don't indicate how to obtain it. Six Operations to Order: SELECT, FROM, WHERE, GROUP BY, HAVING, and ORDER BY By using examples, we will explain the execution order of the six most common operations or pieces in an SQL query.

Why Use SQL Over Excel

SQL is replacing Excel in many fields, and data analysis is certainly one of them. If you are still using Excel as a data analyst, you are missing something very valuable. SQL can make your life easier, as it's more efficient and faster than Excel. So, how and from where can you learn SQL? How Can SQL Help Data Analyst? You can use SQL to help you with the following work:

The Most Important SQL Queries for Beginners

How do you get data from a table? How do you create or delete a table? How do you display distinct records? How do you select rows which store a specific value in a column? You can easily do all of this by writing basic SQL queries. This guide discusses the 30 most important SQL queries for beginners. Let's take a look. 1. Retrieving Data From All Columns This is a very basic query to display all data from a table.

YouTube Tutorials That Actually Teach You Some SQL

YouTube is not just funny cats, music clips, and viral videos. It can also be a mine of knowledge – if you know where to look. Can YouTube tutorials really help you learn SQL? Let's say you're a marketer or an accountant. You work with databases every day. But when it’s time to write a query and get specific data, you need to call someone from IT. Why not learn to do it yourself?

24 Rules to the SQL Formatting Standard

Writing queries to a database requires knowledge about SQL syntax, but this is not all you should know. Best practices for writing professional SQL code require good formatting skills. In this article I discuss why this is so important and what are the basic rules you should follow. Why is it Worthwhile to Format SQL Code? Beginner SQL programmers often don't pay much attention to formatting their code. If you think formatting is something that can be safely ignored, look at the code below:

SQL INNER JOIN Explained in Simple Words

In this article, I will cover perhaps the most important element of the SQL language. That's right! I'm talking about the SQL INNER JOIN clause. As you know, in a database the data are stored in several tables. In my last article, I covered how to create SQL queries when the data you need is in only one table. But what if the data you need is in two tables?

Forget About Excel, High Five With SQL

Find out why you should forget about Excel and start using SQL even if you're not an IT expert. We'll show you how easy it is to learn SQL, how it can make you work better, and how makes the learning process fun. "I Don't Deal With Data" We frequently hear the sentence above from people outside the IT industry. Well, it's not entirely true. Data is now almost everywhere.

Get to Know the Power of SQL Recursive Queries

Level: Advanced -- Most commonly, the SQL queries we run on a database are quite simple. Well, that depends on your role, of course. Analysts in data warehouses retrieve completely different sorts of information using (very often) much more complicated queries than software engineers creating CRUD applications. However, sometimes it's simpler or more elegant to run a query that is a little bit more sophisticated without needing further data processing in the code.

What’s the Difference Between RANK and DENSE_RANK in SQL?

Problem: You want to compare the rankings produced by RANK and DENSE_RANK and add them as new columns to a table. Example: Our database has a table named sales_assistant with data in the following columns: id (primary key), first_name, last_name, month, and sold products. idfirst_namelast_namemonthsold products 1LisaBlack52300 2MaryJacobs52400 3LisaBlack62700 4MaryJacobs62700 5AlexSmith62900 6MaryJacobs71200 7LisaBlack71200 8AlexSmith71000 Let’s display each sales assistant’s first and last name and number of sold products.

How to Use LIKE in SQL

Problem: You’d like to find a substring matching a pattern in a string. Example: Our database has a table named customer with data in the following columns: id, first_name, last_name, and city. idfirst_namelast_namecity 1AlanWatsonMadrid 2LisaBlackSingapore 3LauraWilliamsSeattle 4MilanBrickSeoul Let’s see some examples of pattern matching in SQL. Example 1: Let’s display the first name, last name, and city of each customer whose city name starts with the letter 'S.

How to Trim Strings in SQL

Problem: You’d like to remove specific characters from the beginning and end of a string. Example: Our database has a table named post with data in two columns: id and title. idtitle 1' News about dogs ' 3'Eurovision 2019 ' 4'New political climate' Let’s trim the title of each post to remove the unnecessary space at the beginning and end.

How to Sum Values of a Column in SQL?

Problem: You’d like to sum the values of a column. Example: Our database has a table named game with data in the following columns: id, player, and score. idplayerscore 1John134 2Tom146 3Lucy20 4Tom118 5Tom102 6Lucy90 7Lucy34 8John122 Let’s find the total score obtained by all players.

How to Round Up a Number to the Nearest Integer in SQL

Problem: You want to round up a number to the nearest integer. Example: Our database has a table named rent with data in the following columns: id, city, area, and bikes_for_rent. idcityareabikes_for_rent 1Los Angeles1302.151000 2Phoenix1340.69500 3Fargo126.44101 Let’s show each city’s name along with the ratio of its area to the number of bikes for rent. This ratio should be an integer.

How to Round Numbers in SQL

Problem: You want to round a number to a specific number of decimal places. Example: Our database has a table named product with data in the following columns: id, name, and price_net. idnameprice_net 1bread2.34 2croissant1.22 3roll0.68 Suppose there’s a tax of 24% on each product, and you’d like to compute the gross price of each item (i.

How to Replace Part of a String in SQL

Problem: You’d like to replace part of a string with another string. Example: Our database has a table named investor with data in the following columns: id, company, and phone. idcompanyphone 1Big Market123–300-400 3The Sunny Restaurant123–222-456 4My Bank123-345-400 We’d like to change the phone number format for each company by replacing the hyphen character with a space.

How to Order by Count in SQL?

Problem: You aggregated data into groups, but you want to sort the records in descending order by the number of elements in the groups. Example: Our database has a table named user with data in the following columns: id, first_name, last_name, and country. idfirst_namelast_namecountry 1LisaWilliamsEngland 2GaryAndersPoland 3TomWilliamsPoland 4MichaelBrownFrance 5SusanSmithUSA 6AnneJonesUSA 7EllieMillerPoland Let’s create a report on our users.

How to Order By Two Columns in SQL?

Problem: You need to display records from a given table sorted by two columns. Example: Our database has a table named employee with the following columns: id, first_name, last_name, and salary. idfirst_namelast_namesalary 1LisaUlman3000 2AdaMuller2400 3ThomasGreen2400 4MichaelMuller3000 5MaryGreen2400 Let’s display all information for each employee but sort the records according to salary in descending order first and then by last name in ascending order.

How to Order Alphabetically in SQL

Problem: You want to display records from a table in alphabetical or reverse-alphabetical order according to given column. Example: Our database has a table named customer. The customer table contains data in the id, first_name, and last_name columns. id first_name last_name 1 Susan Thomas 2 John Michael 3 Tom Muller Let’s display each customer’s information, sorted in ascending order by their last name.

How to Number Rows in SQL

Problem: You would like to give each row in the result table a separate number. Example: Our database has a table named furniture with data in the following columns: code (primary key) and name. codename 101bed 202sofa 333chair 123bookcase 235table 766desk The furniture table stores the name of pieces of furniture that we want to number.

How to Multiply Two Columns in SQL

Problem: want to multiply values from two columns of a table. Example: Our database has a table named purchase with data in the following columns: id, name, price, quantity, and discount_id. idnamepricequantitydiscount_id 1pen731 2notebook582 3rubber1131 4pencil case2423 Let’s multiply the price by the quantity of the products to find out how much you paid for each item in your order.

How to Join on Multiple Columns

Problem: You want to join tables on multiple columns by using a primary compound key in one table and a foreign compound key in another. Example: Our database has three tables named student, enrollment, and payment. The student table has data in the following columns: id (primary key), first_name, and last_name. idfirst_namelast_name 1EllieWillson 2TomBrown 3SandraMiller The enrollment table has data in the following columns: primary key (student_id and course_code), is_active, and start_date.

How to Join Multiple (3+) Tables in One Statement

Problem: You’d like to combine data from more than two tables using only one SELECT statement. Example: There are four tables in our database: student, teacher, subject, and learning. The student table contains data in the following columns: id, first_name, and last_name. idfirst_namelast_name 1TomMiller 2JohnSpring 3LisaWilliams 4EllieBarker 5JamesMoore The teacher table contains data in the following columns: id, first_name, last_name, and subject.

How to Handle Divide by Zero In SQL

Problem: You want to perform division in your SQL query, but the denominator is an expression that can be zero. The database will give you an error when the denominator is in fact zero. Example: Our database has a table named investor_data with data in the following columns: id, investor_year, price_per_share, income, and expenses. idinvestor_yearprice_per_shareincomeexpenses 120162032002300 2201713020002000 3201840200100 420191559004900 Let’s divide the price per share by the difference between income and expenses to determine the P/E ratio (price-earnings ratio) for each year.

How to Floor Numbers in SQL

Problem: You want to round a number down to the nearest integer. Example: Our database has a table named employee with data in the following columns: id, first_name, last_name, and hours_worked (for the current month). idfirst_namelast_namehours_worked 1AlanWatson95 2LisaBlack225 3LauraWilliams104 Let’s show the first and last name of each employee along with the number of days they worked.

How to Find the Minimum Value of a Column in SQL

Problem: You’d like to find the smallest numeric value in a column. Example: Our database has a table named employment with data in the following columns: id, first_name, last_name, department, and salary. idfirst_namelast_namedepartmentsalary 1EllieMartinesmarketing1200 2MartinJohnsonfinance2300 3MichaelJacobsproduction1100 4StephenKowalskimarketing4300 5StanleyMillermarketing3500 6JenyBrownfinance5000 7MargaretGreenmarketing1500 8LisaThomasproduction2800 Let’s find the lowest salary among all employees.

How to Find the Maximum Value of a Numeric Column in SQL

Problem: You’d like to find the maximum value of a numeric column. Example: Our database has a table named product with data in the following columns: id, name, year, and items. idnameyearitems 1bread roll2018345 2chocolate2017123 3butter201934 4bread roll2019456 5butter201856 6butter201778 7chocolate201987 8chocolate201876 Let’s find the maximum number of items sold over all years.

How to Find the Average of a Numeric Column in SQL

Problem: You’d like to calculate the average of numbers stored in a column. Example: Our database has a table named sale with data in the following columns: id, city, year, and amount. idcityyearamount 1Los Angeles20172345.50 2Chicago20181345.46 3Annandale2016900.56 4Annandale201723230.22 5Los Angeles201812456.20 6Chicago201789000.40 7Annandale201821005.77 8Chicago20162300.89 Let’s calculate the average sales, regardless of city or year.

How to Find Records with NULL in a Column

Problem: You want to find records with NULL in a column. Example: Our database has a table named children with data in four columns: id, first_name, middle_name, and last_name. idfirst_namemiddle_namelast_name 1JohnCarlJackson 2TomNULLThomson 3LisaAliceNULL 4AnneNULLSmith Let’s find the id, first name, and last name of children without a middle name (NULL in column middle_name). We use the IS NULL operator for this.

How to Find Minimum Values in Columns

Problem: You want to find rows that store the smallest numeric value in a column. Example: Our database has a table named weather with data in the following columns: id, city, and temperature. idcitytemperature 1Houston23 2Atlanta20 3Boston15 4Cleveland15 5Dallas34 6Austin28 Here’s how to find cities with the lowest temperature.

How to Find Duplicate Rows in SQL?

Problem: You have duplicate rows in your table, with only the IDs being unique. How do you find those duplicate entries? Example: Our database has a table named product with data in the following columns: id, name, and category. idnamecategory 1steakmeat 2cakesweets 3dsteakmeat 4porkmeat 5cakesweets 6cakesweets Let’s find duplicate names and categories of products.

How to Filter Rows without NULL in a column

Problem: You want to find records without a NULL in a column. Example: Our database has a table named product with data in three columns: id, name, and price. idnameprice 1butterNULL 2milk2.35 3bread3.25 4cheeseNULL Let’s find the names and prices of products that have a price (without a NULL). Do this by using the IS NOT NULL operator.

How to Filter Records with Aggregate Function SUM

Problem: You need to find rows in which groups have a sum of values in one column less than a given value. Example: Our database has a table named company with data in the following columns: id, department, first_name, last_name, and salary. iddepartmentfirst_namelast_namesalary 1marketingLoraBrown2300 2financeJohnJackson3200 3marketingMichaelThomson1270 4productionTonyMiller6500 5productionSallyGreen2500 6financeOlivierBlack3450 7productionJenifferMichelin2800 8marketingJeremyLorson3600 9marketingLouisSmith4200 Let’s find the names of departments that have sums of salaries of its employees less than 7000.

How to Filter Records with Aggregate Function COUNT

Problem: You want to find groups of rows with a specific number of entries in a group. Example: Our database has a table named product with data in the following columns: id, name and category. idnamecategory 1sofafurniture 2glovesclothing 3T-Shirtclothing 4chairfurniture 5deskfurniture 6watchelectronics 7armchairfurniture 8skirtclothing 9radio receiverelectronics Let’s find the category of products with more than two entries.

How to Filter Records with Aggregate Function AVG

Problem: You want to find groups of rows in which the average of values in a column is higher or lower than a given value. Example: Our database has a table named product with data in the following columns: id, name, grocery and price. idnamegroceryprice 1milkGreen Shop2.34 2breadClark’s Grocery3.56 3breadSuper Market4.15 4milkSuper Market1.80 5breadGrocery Amanda2.26 6milkViolet Grocery3.

How to Eliminate Duplicate Rows in SQL

Problem: You’d like to eliminate any duplicate rows from the result set of a query so that each row appears only once. Example: Our database has a table named clothes with data in the following columns: id, name, color, and year_produced. idnamecoloryear_produced 1T-shirtyellow2015 2jacketblue2016 3jeansblack2015 4jacketblue2015 5jacketgreen2016 6jacketyellow2017 7hatyellow2017 Let’s get the non-repeated names and colors of clothes produced before 2017.

How to Count the Number of Rows in a Table in SQL

Problem: You’d like to determine how many rows a table has. Example: Our database has a table named pet with data in the following columns: id, eID (electronic identifier), and name. ideIDname 123456sparky 223457mily 3NULLlessy 4NULLcarl 534545maggy Let’s count all rows in the table. Solution: COUNT(*) counts the total number of rows in the table:

How to Count Distinct Values in SQL

Problem: You’d like to count how many different non-NULL values there are in a given column. Example: Our database has a table named customer with data in the following columns: id, first_name, last_name, and city. idfirst_namelast_namecity 1JohnWilliamsChicago 2TomBrownAustin 3LucyMillerChicago 4EllieSmithDallas 5BrianJonesAustin 6AllanDavisNULL Let’s find the number of different (and non-NULL) cities.

How to Convert a String to Uppercase in SQL

Problem: You would like to convert a string to uppercase. Example: Our database has a table named questionnaire with data in the following columns: id, first_name, last_name, and favorite_car. idfirst_namelast_namefavorite_car 1AlanJacksonHonda Civic 2ElisaThomsonTOYOTA Camry 3MaryMartinesNissan rogue 4ChrisBrownford focus 5AdamSpringRam PICKUP Our table stores the make and model of the favorite car for each person who filled out our questionnaire.

How to Convert a String to Lowercase in SQL

Problem: You would like to convert a string to lowercase. Example: Our database has a table named product with data in the id and name columns. idname 1Cobb Salad 2Pot roast 3Jerky 4BANANA SPLIT 5CORN bread 6chicken fried Steak Notice that the naming styles are inconsistent for these products. Let’s display all product names in lowercase.

How to Concatenate Strings in SQL

Problem: You want to join strings from two columns of a table into one. Example: Our database has a table named student with data in the following columns: id, first_name and last_name. idfirst_namelast_name 1LoraSmith 2EmilBrown 3AlexJackson 4MartinDavis Let’s append the first name to the last name of the student in one string. Use a space between each name.

How to Add Ranking Positions to Rows with DENSE_RANK() in SQL

Problem: You want to add a ranking position to rows consecutively, even if the rows have the same values. Example: Our database has a table named competition with data in the following columns: id (primary key), first_name, last_name, and score. idfirst_namelast_namescore 11JohnThomas345 14MaryJohnson222 16LisaBrown154 23AlanBlake222 32ChrisTaylor154 Let’s display all details about students: their last name, first name, and scores sorted by score in descending order.

How to Add Ranking Positions of Rows in SQL with RANK()

Problem: You want to rank records by skipping ranking positions after rows that have the same rank. Example: Our database has a table named championship with data in the following columns: id (primary key), user_name, and score. iduser_namescore 111John12 112Mary23 115Lisa45 120Alan23 221Chris23 Let’s display all users’ names and their scores sorted in descending order and ranked by score.

Finding Maximum Values in Rows

Problem: You want to find which rows store the largest numeric value in a given column. Example: Our database has a table named student with data in the following columns: id, first_name, last_name, and grade. idfirst_namelast_namegrade 1LisaJackson3 2GaryLarry5 3TomMichelin2 4MartinBarker2 5EllieBlack5 6MarySimpson4 Let’s find the students who have the highest grades.